In Mazzie v. Lehigh Valley Hosp., the defendants in a medical negligence matter appealed after a jury found in favor of the plaintiffs. The defendants claimed that they should have been awarded a JNOV because the plaintiff’s expert did not testify “to a reasonable degree of medical certainty” that the defendants’ actions caused the injury. The Pennsylvania Superior Court held that, though the expert did not invoke that exact phrase, he was “steadfast” in his opinion that the defendants’ negligence caused the injury. The defendants also claimed that the trial court erred in granting the plaintiffs a new trial on damages for pain and suffering. The Superior Court disagreed and held that the plaintiff suffered non-economic damages, which her preexisting conditions did not negate.