After being convicted by a jury of two bank robberies, the defendants appealed their attorneys’ decisions to stipulate that the banks were federally insured and, as a result, the federal courts had jurisdiction to hear the cases. The defendants claimed that they wished to contest the case at every level and that their lawyers stipulated to this without their consent or approval. Relying on McCoy v. Louisiana, 138 S. Ct. 1500 (2018), the 3rd Circuit held that the attorneys’ stipulations did not violate the defendants’ 6th Amendment rights to counsel, as the decisions to concede a jurisdictional element is a tactical decision reserved for counsel.